In the world of coffee, the term “cherry” holds great significance. From the moment coffee is harvested to the final stages of processing, the cherry plays a crucial role. Let’s delve into what exactly cherry means in coffee terms and how it affects the final brew.
What is Cherry?
In coffee terms, cherry refers to the fruit that grows on coffee plants. Similar to other fruits, the coffee cherry contains seeds inside, which are the coffee beans we all know and love. These cherries, when ripe, possess vibrant colors that range from red and yellow to shades of orange.
The Coffee Cherry – A Close Look
When examining the coffee cherry, it consists of several distinct layers, each serving a purpose in the cultivation and processing of coffee beans. Let’s explore these layers:
1. Skin or Exocarp:
The outermost layer of the cherry, the skin, is thin and smooth, protecting the fruit from external factors.
2. Pulp or Mesocarp:
Beneath the skin lies a juicy layer called the pulp. This sweet and slightly sticky layer contributes to the coffee’s flavors during processing.
3. Parchment or Pergamino:
Within the pulp, there is a thin layer known as the parchment. This protective shell encases the coffee bean, acting as a barrier between the pulp and the ultimate bean.
4. Silver Skin or Endocarp:
Underneath the parchment layer, the silver skin covers the coffee bean. Although it is thin and paper-like, it remains attached to the bean even after processing and roasting.
5. Coffee Bean or Seed:
At the heart of the coffee cherry are the beans or seeds cherished by coffee enthusiasts worldwide. These beans are carefully extracted from the cherry and undergo various processing techniques before transforming into our beloved coffee.
Harvesting the Coffee Cherry
When it comes to coffee production, the timing of harvesting the coffee cherries plays a vital role. The beans inside the cherry must be picked at the optimal stage of ripeness to ensure the finest quality coffee. Harvesting coffee cherries involves:
- Selectively picking ripe cherries by hand for specialty-grade coffees
- Strip picking where all cherries are collected at once, suitable for commercial-grade coffees
After the cherries are harvested, they undergo various processing methods to extract the coffee beans. These methods significantly impact the coffee’s flavor and characteristics. Common processing techniques include:
- Washed / Wet Processing: Involves removing the skin, pulp, and parchment from the bean before drying.
- Natural / Dry Processing: Cherries are dried with the beans intact, allowing natural fermentation to enhance the flavors.
- Honey / Pulped Natural Processing: A method that removes the skin and pulp while leaving some sticky residue (honey) on the bean during drying
Regional Coffee Varieties
As coffee cherries grow in different regions around the world, their flavors and characteristics can vary significantly. Here are some coffee varieties known for their distinctive cherry flavors:
|Region||Coffee Variety||Cherry Flavor|
|Ethiopia||Yirgacheffe||Bright and floral|
|Colombia||Supremo||Nutty and fruity|
|Brazil||Bourbon||Chocolatey and smooth|
The Impact on Coffee Quality
The condition of the coffee cherry greatly influences the coffee’s quality. Factors such as altitude, climate, and farming practices contribute to a coffee cherry’s growth and flavor potential. Factors to consider include:
- Bean ripeness
- Uniformity in the cherries
- Consistency in processing
- Absence of defects or damage
Coffee Cherry as a Brewing Element
Even after the coffee cherry goes through the processing stages, its impact on the final brew cannot be disregarded. When brewing coffee, certain factors influenced by the cherry include:
- Bean roast level
- Flavor profile
- Body and mouthfeel
- Acidity and sweetness
Understanding what the cherry represents in coffee terms helps us appreciate the complexities of this profound beverage. From cultivation to brewing, the cherry is at the heart of every coffee lover’s experience.